This is the long-awaited Brian Gullet report, which is attached. Also attached is the presentation to NYSERDA by Gullett.
The report was published in the November 2011 issue of the journal, “Energy Fuels.” The article, “Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from outdoor wood boilers,” examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from different outdoor wood-fired boiler (OWB) technologies. The authors are: Michael D. Hays, Brian Kent Gullett, Charly King, James Robinson, William Preston, and Abderrahmane Touati. The full article is available at: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef2012694
In the study summary, it states: “These results will assist the U.S. EPA in updating the National Emission Inventory to account for wood boilers and its New Source Performance Standard process.”
Here’s the abstract: This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from different outdoor wood-fired boiler (OWB) technologies including two cord wood heaters, a pellet heater, and a multistage gasifier/combustor. The effect of fuel type [red oak wood (Quercus rubra), white pine wood (Pinus strobes), and red oak with supplementary refuse] on aerosol composition was examined using a classic boiler unit. Aerosol particle emissions were captured using established filter-based sampling methodology and subsequently analyzed using thermal-optical analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. GC-MS was coupled with a novel reduced-volume solvent extraction technique for semivolatile organic compound (SVOC) analysis. GC-MS identified 9% w/w of the aerosol mass emitted from the OWB boilers on average. The OWB aerosols comprised 1-5% w/w levoglucosan, an important molecular marker of cellulose pyrolysis. Organic acid and methoxyphenol SVOC classes showed the highest average concentrations in the OWB aerosol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accounted for between 0.1-4 % w/w of the aerosol mass; PAH emissions from pine wood combustion in the classic OWB were notably high. Each of the original 16 EPA priority PAH was detected in the OWB PM emissions. Wood combustion in the OWB released significantly more PAH per unit mass of fuel burned than either domestic fireplace or woodstove appliances; although, changes in PAH enrichment (µg/kg aerosol) among domestic wood combustion aerosols was less certain. Of the OWBs tested, the pellet heater showed the lowest SVOC emissions on a mass of fuel burned basis. However, OWB technology didn’t always significantly influence the SVOC composition of the particle emissions.
The emissions testing for this study was done in 2009. The study results may have influenced EPA to remove its “percent efficient” claims off the OWHH site, and Oregon’s recent ban on Phase II due to testing standard arguments.
In searching EPA’s site for a publicly available version of this report, I could only find this one-page project summary: http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=503198
There are numerous FOIAs sent to EPA requesting the data behind this report. Still hasn’t been released. You may want to send your own FOIA request. The more we send, the better.
On page 10, the last paragraph states that there is additional supporting information available: “Supporting Information Available. Tables containing target compounds, MDLs, calibration limits, recoveries, average OWB emission factors with uncertainties, and support for statistical test populations are provided in Supporting Information. This material is available free of charge via the internet at http://pubs.acs.org/.”
As requested, here is the poster for the EPA project, “Environmental, Energy, Market, and Health Characterization of Four Wood-fired Hydronic Heater Technologies.”